March 1, 2024

Deciphering Melodic Alchemy: A Comparative Study of Melody and Improvisation in Indian Classical and Jazz Fusion

Indigenous Art & Culture

Subhadip Das

Designation: UGC NET SRF, Dept. of Hindustani Classical Music, Sangit Bhavana, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, West Bengal


The article titled “Deciphering Melodic Alchemy: A Comparative Study of Melody and Improvisation in Indian Classical and Jazz Fusion” explores the complex dynamics that exist within the fusion of Jazz and Indian classical music. This work delves into the convergence and merging of these two distinct musical traditions, which have their own historical origins and developmental paths. The result is an innovative aesthetic form.

Commencing with an analysis of the inherently transformative quality that permeates every facet of being, the article proceeds to trace the development of fusion music, elucidating its origins in the amalgamation of varied cultural influences made possible by contemporary globalization. By conducting a thorough examination of melodic concepts in Jazz and Indian music, this article illuminates the underlying principles that govern the respective traditions’ approaches to melody, with particular emphasis on the pivotal role that improvisation plays in both contexts. The author also discussed about the characteristics of melody, both in Indian classical and Jazz Music.

The investigation into the nature of melody in Indian music highlights the fundamental importance of ‘ Raga’ as a fundamental principle, clarifying its complex elements and its indispensable function in influencing the melodic terrain. Conversely, the discourse surrounding Jazz explicates the structural elements of melody within the framework of improvisation, placing emphasis on the dynamic and impromptu nature intrinsic to Jazz performances.

By establishing connections between the rhythmic analysis of phrases in Jazz and Indian music, the article sheds light on the unique yet complementary rhythmic approaches that characterize both genres. Moreover, it explores the extent of improvisation in Jazz and Indian classical music, explicating the philosophical foundations that govern improvisational methodologies within each respective tradition.

In summary, the article emphasizes the profound capacity of fusion music to stimulate artistic ingenuity and facilitate intercultural dialogue. Notwithstanding preliminary concerns, fusion music manifests itself as a vibrant and impactful genre, facilitating the bridging of cultural barriers and establishing a more interconnected worldwide musical environment. In their capacity as guardians of cultural heritage, the authors advocate for a receptive attitude towards fusion music, perceiving its development as a genre of esteem that surpasses conventional limitations.


The phenomenon known as “transformation,” which is astonishingly intrinsic, occurs inexorably within the smallest particles of matter. This remains a constant. This phenomenon is the consequence of an accumulation of numerous minor adjustments that transpire over time. Although human beings are also involved in this process, its immediate manifestation is uncommon. Radical change is the only phenomenon that elicits our attention. A single “change” in one thing leads primarily to modifications in all other things and individuals. Consequently, each alteration is interrelated.

‘Art’ has consistently served as a vehicle throughout history to document and portray these transformations. As one of the most significant art forms, society can gain insight into the social philosophy of a specific era through its study. It reflects the structure of society. The current scientific and technological epoch, along with its subsequent progressions, has facilitated global connectivity through cross-cultural interactions and consolidations across all sectors. This is convergence, uniting, and merging. The fusion of diverse cultures has significantly contributed to the development of numerous fusion arts, including fusion music.

Fusion of Indian Classical Music and Jazz Music

History has shown how ‘Art’ has reflected social developments. The study of music, one of the most important art genres, reveals a society’s way of thinking. It represents society. Current science and technology have brought the world closer, resulting in cross-cultural exchange and mergers in every field. Several fusion arts, including ‘fusion music’, have evolved from this merging, converging, and melting of cultures.

The literal definition of the word “fusion” is “something that is formed through the process of fusion.” The noun in question is the infinitive verb “to fuse.” Fusion is also called alloy, union, unification, amalgamation, mix, coalition, synthesis, federation, integration, or merger.

Fusion (n): the act or consequence of combining two or more components to create a unified entity (e.g., the fusion of a concept derived from the fields of anthropology and psychology). [1]

Fusion primarily refers to the act of merging. It is the outcome or “product” that results from the fusion of two or more elements, subjects, art forms, and so forth. Recently, the term ‘fusion’ has come to refer to the merging of two or more distinct artistic techniques; it is also applied to dance, painting, and other forms of artistic expression.

Fusion music is characterized by the inclusion of at least two distinct genres, as per its definition. It is advisable to integrate all genres in a way that unifies their sounds, allowing for the differentiation of their individual characteristics in the final product. If not, it would resemble the fusion of two or more distinct musical styles rather than fusion music. Thus, oneness is of the utmost importance, given that the product is entirely unique.

Evolution of Fusion Music

Fusion music has evolved in two main ways: According to one belief, the changes in the evolution of music caused by various influences are the result of fusion. As a result, changes in music are thought to be a product of fusion. Furthermore, fusion is not considered a new type of music.

Some argue that, while the term is new, the evolution of various music styles around the world demonstrates that fusion has played a significant role. According to evolutionary theory, there is a natural, internal creative force that drives nature to evolve into new or more complex forms. Music is not an exception to this theory. This creative instinct drives an artist to experiment with various permutations and combinations of the music styles he has learned and heard.

All great musicians throughout history have sown the seeds of their own ideas in music. Musicians traveled to different lands to spread the fragrance of their respective music styles. Creative musicians incorporated elements from their favorite styles into their own traditional style. Some ideas took root and grew into large, long-lasting trees; others sprouted and spread their fragrance for a brief time; and some seeds were lost. Because of these influences, music styles, forms, and even morals have evolved across cultures over time.

Origin of Jazz

Numerous Jazz historians were enticed to classify Jazz as having its origins in European or African musical traditions. The assertion that Jazz rhythm originates in Africa while harmonies originate in European practices is an oversimplification. For a more precise analysis, it is now possible to place the antecedents of Jazz in a much more precise perspective. The African and European lineages will become entangled because of this process; however, this is to be anticipated when examining a hybrid that has undergone evolution for over a century.[2]

Further delving into the correlation between musical tones and the African way of life, vocabulary, and significance, an analogy to early Jazz emerges. Instrumental music is restricted to brief preludes, postludes, and subsidiary pieces. The African native is not acquainted with this concept, which is distinct from European “absolute” music in that it is not dependent on verbal functions. Fundamentally, language operates exclusively in tandem with rhythm. This phenomenon is evident in all verbal endeavors, encompassing even magic and religion. It is evident that the various African languages and dialects constitute a musical genre, as certain syllables possess distinct durations, intensities, and pitch levels. [3]

It has been noted that the evolution of Indian classical music and Jazz has occurred either through a harmonious fusion of diverse cultural influences or because of a merger. The historical periods, ethnic origins, and developmental trajectories of these two musical styles are quite dissimilar; nevertheless, they have both been influenced by other cultures in their quest to attain the current aesthetic.

An Overview of Melody in Indian Classical and Jazz Music’s Perspective.

Music can be understood by examining the essential and intangible concepts that comprise it. Harmony, rhythm, and melody are the foundational principles of music.

‘Sa’ is considered the ‘Tonic’ in Hindustani music. The notes’ positions correspond to the frequencies derived from their respective tonics (Sa). For example, any mention of Re, Ga, or any other note refers to Sa. The notes are determined based on their distance from the tonic (Sa), rather than their frequency. (Because it is the tonic) affects the frequency of each of the six notes. Thus, it is known as Shadaja, which translates to “creator of six notes.” Any frequency may be assumed to be Sa (tonic). A “Bilawal That” (or major scale) is the order in which the Shuddha notes ‘S, R, G, M, P, D, N’ appear. Each note in Jazz music—C, D, E, F, and G—has a specific frequency. The specified sequence begins at C and ends at B, encompassing all natural notes (C, D, E, F, G, A, B), which together comprise the major scale.

Music can be understood by examining the essential and intangible concepts that comprise it. Harmony, rhythm, and melody are the foundational principles of music.

A melody may be nothing more than a succession of tones from an acoustic standpoint, an emotional response from a psychological standpoint, or one way in which tonal materials are rendered artistically; however, according to music theory, it is something of each of these.[4]

Melody can be conceptualized as a series of tones that delineate a musical curve through their distinct pitch variations.[5]

Melodic concepts in Indian music

 Raga is the fundamental concept of melody. The alternative name for Hindustani music is ” Raga Sangeet.” While various eras have witnessed several modifications in presentation, they have not resulted in a devaluation of Raga, the fundamental component. Raga is a concept that can be illustrated through diverse modes of presentation. When attempting to define Raga, it is tempting to resort to overly simplistic and conclusive statements, such as “A Raga is a tune” or “A Raga is a scale.” However, no single Western word can adequately describe everything that ‘ Raga’ encompasses. It is defined as the following: Raga is a distinct scale characterized by well-defined principles regarding the arrangement of notes (chalan) and particular significant phrases. These phrases include Vadi, which is the most important note of Raga; Samvadi, which is the second most important note of Raga; Aroh, Avaroh, Pakad (phrases used to identify Raga); ‘Gayan Samay’ or performing time; and others. Collectively, they contribute to the creation of a distinct mood.

Two varieties of melody are present in Indian music. The first is pre-composed, while the second is performed spontaneously. In light music, approximately ninety percent of the melody is pre-composed, whereas in Indian classical music, ninety percent of the melody is impromptu.

 Components of Melody in Indian Music:

The principal components of melody in Raga are the scale and the ‘chalan’, which consist of distinct ‘intervals’ and ‘length of individual notes,’ respectively. In Indian music, “rhythmic progression” is an additional significant component of melody that varies by ‘Gharana’ (style) and modes of presentation. In the performance, the tempo and pitch of the melody are progressively accelerated. According to eminent ‘Sitar Maestro’ Pandit Harashankar Bhattacharya, for the purpose of presenting Indian classical music, an artist’s focus should always be there to create melody.

Components of jazz melodic structure:

In jazz, melody is

(1) one of the essential elements of music, along with harmony and rhythm;

(2) that part of music that is heard most prominently;

(3) a component of music capable of division into smaller fragments, such as periods, phrases, or motifs; and

(4) a group or fragments woven into symmetric

(4) a group or fragments woven into symmetrical patterns. The motif is the smallest melodic entity from which much of the music is written or played.[6]

The two fundamental components of melody are its rhythmic articulation, which establishes a hierarchy among the sounds by designating some as longer or more accented than others, and the interval, which commonly connects melody to a modal series of tones such as the major or minor scale. Thus, the phrase, which is regarded as the fundamental unit of musical discourse, is formed.[7]

Melody in Compositions of Jazz

Jazz has two types of phrases: “theme phrase” and “variation phrase” like European music. They rarely cause confusion due to their rhythmic equilibrium. The motif phrase has less ornamentation than the variation phrase, making it more subdued. The latter category includes chorus phrases and paraphrases. The first one has clear melodic connections to the theme phrase, while the second one, which is free variation, departs from it.

A jazz performance of a piece may not highlight its original melody. Ten minutes is typical for jazz composition performances. A mere two minutes feature the composition’s inspiration melody. This original melody, called the “head” or “theme,” is played once or twice at the beginning and end.

It provides a framework for the improvisations and serves primarily to designate the composition in progress. Some jazz performances follow this structure, but most do. A single jazz musician usually improvises a melody. This is called “taking a solo.” Despite having other musicians, jazz improvisations are called “solo.” This highlights the melody’s importance. An improvised melody could be a simple theme variation. This melody provides an immediate foundation for improvisation. In most jazz styles, improvisers must master the many ways they connect an improvised melody to the underlying harmony. Intonated melodies can be performed without harmonies or compositions. This is sometimes called “free improvisation.”

Characteristics of Melody in Indian Classical Music

The fundamental characteristics that define an Indian melody are its harmonious melodic structure, raga system, and the resolution of intrinsic tension between notes. A fundamental and distinguishing concept in the domain of Indian music is time theory. In accordance with the scales and the notes, the ragas are partitioned into eight prahars over the course of twenty-four hours (in Hindu scriptures, one ‘prahar’ corresponds to three hours), four prahars during the day, and four prahars at night. In light music, the application of time theory is considered superfluous. Nevertheless, numerous musicians try to conserve it, particularly as the light music performance draws to a close. A considerable number of musicians perform compositions in the raga “Bhairavi,” which is considered the ideal raga for the conclusion of a concert. Solo performances, in essence, adhere to this approach and concentrate on Indian music. Even in the case of light music, one or two vocalists conduct the entire ensemble during a group performance. It is executed in the guise of a melodic solo. Melodies often exhibit discernible variations that span various musical disciplines. Alap is the predominant form of melodic improvisation utilised in classical compositions like Khayal. The melodic phrase alap facilitates the examination of the raga. Despite the absence of a strict beat-to-beat rhythm, it exhibits an intrinsic tempo. It independently suggests the progression of the melody. It is composed of linear melodic patterns and functions to augment the raga. To end each rhythmic cycle in a pleasing manner, the ‘Sam’—the first beat of the ‘tal’—must be met with the motif ‘mukhada‘. Given the minimal role that improvisation plays in light music, the composition’s overall presentation assumes paramount importance. Harmony and rhythm accompany it. Harmony, a concept that was previously in its infancy in Indian music, has gained considerable prominence in Indian light music due to the influence of Western music. The utilization of diverse Thekas (patterns) of tālas, alongside the implementation of harmony, enhances the visual allure of compositions devoted to light music.
 The primary attributes of Indian melody, which function in alignment with the thoroughly captivating notion of raga, consist of melodic structures that emanate serenity and tenderness, notes that represent patterns frequently referred to as “alankar,” and notes arranged sequentially. Semi-classical forms, in contrast to light music, which departs from the raga concept, incorporate unanticipated notes (occasionally deviating from the raga) in an effort to enrich the composition. On the other hand, classical music strives to achieve artistic perfection by employing ragas in their purest and most potent forms.

Characteristics of Jazz Melody

Instrumental music predominates over vocal music in jazz. Melodies featured in jazz performances, whether premeditated or sung, frequently consist of rapid runs or expansive melodic leaps, which are regarded as unsuitable for vocal performance. The jazz style bebop is renowned for its extensive use of such melodies. Jazz vocalists perform these types of melodies, albeit frequently in an improvised manner and without words. Scat refers to the practice of constructing melodies using nonsense syllables. Undoubtedly, numerous jazz compositions feature exquisite melodies reminiscent of songs. Most jazz ballads are classified as such. Also, there are numerous faster positions that are melodically straightforward in comparison. Thus, complexity is not the only characteristic that designates a melody as jazz. Frequently, jazz melodies draw inspiration from African musical traditions. Jazz, for instance, employs what are referred to as blue notes, which are flat. In contrast to the notes that correspond in European harmony. While standard tuning systems do not provide an exact equivalent for these notes, one common approach is to approximate their effect by reducing the third and seventh steps of the major scale, and frequently the fifth as well. [8]

The incorporation of blue notes into the jazz lexicon occurred via the blues genre of music. Jazz, through the Blues, also acquired from Africa the utilization of call-and-response structures and recurring melodic elements referred to as “riffs.” One musician states a brief theme in a call-and-response pattern, followed by the performance of a second theme that is a response to the initial theme. A riff is a motif that is repeated and serves as either the principal melody or as an accompaniment to another melody. A further characteristic shared by numerous jazz melodies is the implementation of syncopation and swing rhythms.[9]

While the aforementioned characteristics frequently define jazz melodies; it is not always feasible to provide an exact definition of what constitutes a jazz melody. Frequently, the other element of a performance—harmony or rhythm—is to blame. Jazz is distinguished by the incorporation of improvisation and the utilization of expressive techniques. Indeed, jazz musicians frequently perform “jazz” renditions of compositions that feature melody transfers from other musical genres (e.g., pop, or classical) by incorporating jazz-specific elements into other facets of the performance. [10]

Although the purpose of melody in jazz may differ slightly from that of other musical genres, and the melodies themselves may differ from most of the pop and classical melodies, it is crucial to acknowledge that melody remains an essential component of jazz, whether it is composed or improvised.

Rhythmic Interpretation of Phrases in Indian Music and Jazz Music

The Phrase’s Rhythmic Articulation in Indian Music The use of the ‘tal’ or ‘tala’ system enhances Indian music. “Tal” is that magnificent rhythmic element indigenous to India that structures music. A composed melody rendered in tal becomes more structured and exquisite. The melody is given a syllabic expression by Tal. A time structure is imposed discipline and constraint on even an uncomposed melody by virtue of the accompanying rhythm instruments. The first beat, or ‘Sam’, is the most significant and aesthetically pleasing component of rhythmic expression. It is the most appealing beat in each tal cycle and is emphasized whenever it occurs. When executed accurately, this specific beat establishes a connection between the audience and the performance while imbuing the melody with an entirely distinctive quality. “Sam” is the rhythmic element that lends success to ālāp, tan, and other similar pieces, including both improvised and composed melodies.

Whereas for jazz music, rhythmic articulation determines the hierarchy of notes in a melody. Each note in a melody has a unique significance. Two-quarters, half, or whole notes may have the same metrical value, but they are never truly “equal.” There is always one that stands out more. ‘Polyrhythm’ is a fundamental component of all jazz, though it rarely manifests itself in mathematically precise patterns. Most jazz melodies exhibit polyrhythmic characteristics.

Scope of Improvisation in Indian Music

Philosophically, improvisation often emphasizes developing a deep understanding of the action being performed and bringing one’s own awareness into the present. This fusion of ‘awareness’ and ‘understanding’ enables the practitioner to act in accordance with a variety of optimal options, even if he or she has never encountered a similar circumstance before.

The act of acting and reacting, as well as generating and producing, in the moment and in reaction to the stimuli present in one’s immediate surroundings, is improvisation.

Indian music is based on improvisation. The primary ‘bandish’ is always pre-composed, but this unpremeditated music gives the artist many opportunities to explore. The world knows Indian music for its spontaneous improvisation. Indian music conjures up the idea of “Rāga.” Raga is the “improvisation” of a single theme or characteristic. Indian music emphasises “improvisational melody” (melodic music) as its most important element. It has been observed that foreign musicians, when asked for their opinion, consistently find improvisation in Indian Ragas intellectually stimulating.

A ‘ Raga’s’ fixed components are its notes and challan, which indicate ascending and descending notes. There are many ways to apply successive notes. The artist has full freedom to work within the rāga’s constraints. Thus, delight, skill, talent, experience, ingenuity, aesthetic sensibility, and comprehension determine the Raga’s quality and beauty when performed. The melodies of Indian music include Khayal, Dhrupad, Tappa, Thumri, and Tarana. The bandish in each case represents the pre-composed song, which is a minor part of the performance but a guide. Because each Raga is so extensively explored, a guideline is needed to progress towards it. There are two varieties of improvisation within Indian music i.e., rhythmic, and melodic.

Scope of Improvisation in Jazz Music

Improvisation constitutes the fundamental essence of jazz music. The African tradition of improvising multiple lines continues. most early jazz styles, which emphasize group improvisation. Early jazz’s multi-linearity was discontinued until the late 1950s when the arrangement (a prominently ‘white’ influence) and the solo in a prearranged context were implemented.

According to Wynton Marsalis – “In jazz, improvisation isn’t a matter of just making anything up. Jazz, like any language, has its own grammar and vocabulary. There’s no right or wrong, just some choices that are better than others.”

The improvisational skills of Bach, Handel, Mozart, Beethoven, and Liszt are well known. All jazz players compose. They need the same discipline as composers, even though they do not write their solos by hand.

Another way to improve the harmonic foundation is to add notes like ninths, elevenths, or thirteenths to the fundamental chord or to graft a secondary chord from another key onto it. Contemporary jazz has a wider melodic and harmonic field. A six-note chord gives a soloist more melodic options and successions than a three-note one. However, a contemporary improviser who is used to playing intricate harmonies may struggle with the major triads.[11]

Aspects that contribute to improvisation in Jazz

The outcome of a jazz musician’s improvisation is primarily determined by the following five elements: instinct, intellect, emotion, pitch sense, and habit. Most of his originality stems from his intuition; his disposition is dictated by his emotions; his intellect aids in the formulation of melodic forms and the planning of technical challenges; his sense of pitch converts perceived or imagined pitches into letter names and fingerings; and his playing practices empower him to rapidly locate established pitch patterns. Four of these components of his thought process—instinct, emotion, pitch perception, and habit—are predominantly unconscious. As a result, any ability to regulate his improvisation must stem from his intellect. Although the intellect’s ability to regulate intuition and emotion is constrained, it can accomplish tasks such as ear training and the development of numerous useful finger patterns, in addition to its primary function of technical problem-solving.

Scope of Indian Classical and Jazz Fusion

Exploration with many musical styles creates fusion. Fusion is a broad experimental music form. This music evolves through experimenting. Fusing can arise from showing beauty, surprise, or shock. Due to the lack of restrictions, it is an underdeveloped assertion that is growing. While they’re in use, let’s create a vision for fusion music’s evolution with the possibility of further research in the indicated directions.

The following are some potential initial thoughts or concepts regarding the fusion of musical elements:

A. Based on melody, harmony, and rhythm

B. Based on Themes

C. Based on lyrics and singing styles

D. Presenting ‘Jugal Bandi’[*]

D. Based on diverse types of instruments, like-

i. Wind instruments, including the clarinet, piccolo, flute, saxophone, trumpet, and trombone.

ii. String instruments: the violin, mandolin, concertina, sitar, cello, and every variety thereof.

iii. Rhythmic instruments, including tabla, mridangam, Dhol, Dholak, pakhawaj, ghatam, and various others.

iv. Instruments of rhythm that also communicate melody: the piano, every variety of guitar, and bass instruments (particularly string instruments)

Every instrument is unique in construction, tonality, range, patterns, application, and more. Fusion may involve the use of a combination of instruments or the application of technicalities to instruments that deviate from the genre’s customary practices. Indian technicalities, for instance, can be incorporated into jazz. Instruments, conversely, speaking. Each musical instrument possesses the unique ability to execute ornamentation and subtle expressions. Consequently, it is imperative to select the appropriate type of instrument. Regarding a specific musical composition or piece, there is an extensive array of potential outcomes pertaining to this topic.

The aforementioned points represent only a fraction of the vast scope of fusion music, which is gradually revealed. The convergence of individuals from various cultural backgrounds has precipitated a considerable surge in the scope of experimental endeavours. One’s education in music also has an impact on their thought processes. For instance, when an Indian music student begins to study jazz guitar, His train of thought is diametrically opposed to that of a jazz music scholar. This form of education is presently readily obtainable due to the advancements in technology and the proliferation of communication technology. Additionally, the vast advancements in recording methods have broadened the potential for experimentation. This has created a multitude of opportunities for entry. Brilliant minds are abundantly capable of generating novel ideas. The best opportunities can be found in freedom, but irresponsible use of it can be detrimental. Fusion is frequently erroneously perceived as “easy music.” It is rule-free music in which nothing is deemed inappropriate. However, given that it is a demand for all forms of art, it would be advantageous if the artist demonstrated an understanding of incorporating its artistic principles.

Limitations of Fusion Music

Scope is inextricably linked to limitations. One’s restrictions are the factors that give each option its own identity and shape the space. Because fusion is a unique musical style with no preconceived framework, it is accessible to theoretical research by anyone.
Harmful to music society are haphazard efforts that ignore technical rigour while continuing to use gimmicks. When music is viewed as a divine gift, the significance of discipline lessens. Because there is no manual, even the most obscure student is free to experiment with fusion, which may result in a lower quality. The fundamental study and its technological components make exploration easier.
Intersections are overlooked when introducing Indian music into fusion. Non-intentionally, but owing to a lack of interest and accountability for music, they are ignored by musicians, inhibiting its qualitative development.
Blending generally degrades the purity of the original musical styles. This could result in the creation of a completely new musical style.
 As a result, there is a cascade of additional restrictions after each restriction with a matching scope. We have no choice but to move on, accepting each change constructively, as this is an ongoing process. The outcome depends totally on the depth of the roots and our approach to them.


The researcher investigated the continual development of jazz and Indian music theory towards the emergence of fusion as a genre. Although not yet formally acknowledged, fusion is advancing steadily. It leverages the capacity of art to disrupt the monotony of everyday existence, fostering innovation and the articulation of emotions. The success of any art form is heavily reliant on audience acceptance, which is shaped by societal norms and the dominant cultural milieu. As societies progress, their comprehension and admiration of art also undergo transformations. Fusion, which is embraced by musicians and audiences alike, signifies an unprecedented era in music by providing a forum for artistic innovation and cross-cultural interchange. Despite initial concerns, the expansion of fusion music shows its pertinence and potential influence on the world’s cultural fabric. Although fusion’s departure from classical norms may cause concern among some traditionalists, its significance is underscored by its capacity to attract talented artists and promote international communication. In our capacity as guardians of cultural heritage, it is incumbent upon us to adopt an open-minded stance towards the dynamic realm of music, safeguarding tradition while simultaneously making intellectual contributions that will elevate fusion as a revered genre in the future.


[*] Jugal Bandi employs two distinct vocals or instruments that are mutually complementary. Comparable to a question-and-answer session. Within the realm of fusion music, Artists make extensive use of this element to captivate the audience

[1] Hobson, Archie, ed. The Oxford Dictionary of Difficult Words. Oxford University Press, 2002, p. 185.

[2] Schuller, Gunther. Early Jazz: Its Roots and Musical Development, vol. 1. Oxford University Press, New York, 1968, p. 3.

[3] Ibid; p. 5.

[4] Edwards, Arthur C. The Art of Melody. Philosophical Library, Inc., New York, 1956, p. xix.

[5] Hodier, Andre. Jazz-Its Evolution and Essence, translated by David Noakes. Grove Press, 1961, p. 143.

[6] Coker, Jerry. Improvising Jazz. Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964, p. 12.

[7] Hodier, Andre. Jazz-Its Evolution and Essence. Translated by David Noakes, Grove Press, 1961, p. 144.

[8] Ref.-Joachim Berendt; The Jazz Book; New York, Westport, Lawrence hill &

company, 1975.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] Ibid; p. 148-150

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